- 1917 - 1960 (Creation)
Level of description
Extent and medium
Name of creator
After the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, legislation was enacted which discriminated against the non-White section of the population and increased the racial segregation existing at the time of Union. This angered many Blacks and caused a series of strikes by Black workers. By the 1920s responsible Europeans, particularly churchmen, saw the importance of bringing the races together. Native Welfare Societies, consisting of liberal and philanthropic Europeans, were founded which in due course were replaced by Joint Councils, inter-racial in character.
The Joint Council movement was largely the inspiration of Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones and Dr. J.E.K. Aggrey who in 1921 conducted a study tour of education in South Africa on behalf of the Phelps-Stokes Fund of the United States of America. They had seen the value of inter-racial councils in America and persuaded Dr. C.T. Loram, Chief Inspector of Education in Natal, and his friend J. D. Rheinallt Jones, Secretary of the Witwatersrand Council of Education, to establish a multi-racial organisation with the aim of promoting understanding and goodwill between the races. Rheinallt Jones founded the first Joint Council of Europeans and Africans in Johannesburg in 1921 and by 1931 there were in existence thirty European-African Joint Councils' three European-Indian Joint Councils and a European-Coloured Joint Council was in the process of formation. In all eighty Joint Councils were established, many of them continuing to exist side by side with the Institute of Race Relations after it was founded in 1929. By 1951 only two Joint Councils remained, of which only one was active.
During visits to South Africa in the 1920s Dr. Jesse Jones convinced Rheinallt Jones of the need to set up a national body to centralise interracial activities. The project was made possible by finance from the Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Carnegie Corporation. Rheinallt Jones convened an inter-racial conference in Cape Town in January 1929 which revealed enthusiasm for a national organisation. He called together a committee of seven prominent South Africans not connected with any political party - E.H. Brookes, Professor J. du Plessis, Professor D.D.T. Jabavu, Dr. C.T. Loram, T.W. Mackenzie, J.H. Nicholson and J.H. Pim. They met on 9 May 1929 at the house of the Rev. Dr. R.E. Phillips in Johannesburg, resolved to fern a South African Institute of Race Relations and elected C.T. Loram chairman Howard Pim treasurer and Rheinallt Jones secretary.
With the deaths of Mackenzie end Nicholson and the transfer of Loram to a professorial chair at Yale, the Committee was reduced to six but in 1930 Dr. J.G. van der Horst was added and in 1931 Professor R.F.A. Hoernle, Leo Marquard and Senator Lewis Byron. These ten committee members are regarded as the foundation members of the Institute.
Immediate source of acquisition or transfer
The collection forms part of the archive of the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR).
Content and structure area
Scope and content
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
AAAR - African Academy of Arts and Research.
AA-ERA + PHM - African Anti-Expropriation Ratepayers Association and Peoples Housing Movement.
AAC - All African Congress.
AANC - All African National Convention.
ABCFM - American Board of Commissions for Foreign Missions.
ABL - African Business League.
BM - American Board Mission.
ABMA - Abantu-Batho Musical Association.
ABOA - Alexandra Bus Owners' Association.
ACBC - African Council for Boys Clubs.
ACCPWU - African Cement & Cement Products Workers' Union.
ADA - African Dingaka Association.
ACDWU - African Commercial and Distributive Workers' Union.
ADC - African Democratic Council.
ADP - African Democratic Party.
ADSL - African Domestic Servants' League.
AEAW - Association of European and African Women.
AES - Army Educational Services.
ACPWU - African Can and Power Workers' Union.
AHC - Alexandra Health Centre.
AIAC - All-In African Conference.
AIMC - African Independent Mission Church.
AJC - Alexandra Joint Committee.
ALAS - African Life Assurance Society.
AM - Anglican Mission.
AMEC - African Methodist Episcopal Church.
AMS - Adams Mission Station.
AMWU - African Mine Workers' Union.
ANBA - African National Business Association.
ANC - African National Congress.
ANP - Associated Negro Press, Chicago.
ANPC - African National Publishing Company.
ANYIL - African National Youth Improvement League.
AOWU - African Offices Workers' Union.
APDS - African Provident and Development Society.
APO - African People's Organization.
APS - Aborigines Protection Society.
AUCDWC - African United Cultural and Domestic Workers' Club.
A(W)HBFWU - African (Witwatersrand) Hotel, Boarding House & Flat Workers' Union.
AWU - African Workers' Union.
BCHF - Bantu Children's Holiday Fund.
BEMEC - Board of Education, Methodist Episcopal Church.
BFBS - British & Foreign Bible Society.
BFM - Board of Foreign Missions.
BMCJ - Bantu Methodist Church of Johannesburg.
BMHSS - Bantu Methodist Helping Hand Society.
BMSC - Bantu Men's Social Centre.
BSC - Bantu Sports Club.
BSHS - British Social Hygiene School.
BUS - Bantu United School.
BWF - Bantu Welfare Fund.
BWT - Bantu Welfare Trust.
CAA - Council on African Affairs, New York.
CAC - Cape African Congress.
CAB - Coligny Advisory Board.
CRUSC - Crescent Bantu United Sports Club.
CCCC - Central Council for the Care of Cripples.
CCSA - Christian Council South Africa.
CIC - Caledonian Insurance Company.
CN-ETU - Council of Non-European Trade unions.
CPHS - Central Public Health Service.
CPS - Civilian Protective Services.
CFSA - Communist Party of South Africa.
CRJ - Campaign for Right and Justice.
CTSSAC - Cape Town Social Security Action Committee.
DNA - Department of Native Affairs.
DOAA - Daughters of Africa Association.
DOCC - Donaldson Orlando Community Centre.
DPIF - Deferred Pay Interest Fund.
DTCP - Diocesan Training College, Pietersburg.
EAWU - Explosives African Workers' Union.
ENT - Eastern Native Township.
EPBTNA - Eastern Province Bantu Trained Nurses' Association.
ERDBLTA - East Rand District Bantu Lawn Tennis Association.
ERSA - East Rand Students' Association.
EWFC - East & West Friendship Council.
FCCCA - Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America.
FOA - Friends of Africa.
GALM - Gremio Africano de Lourenco Marques.
GCRC - Good Companions Rover Crew.
GGNWF - Governor General's National War Fund.
GNF - Gesuiwerde Nasionale Party.
GWBTAC - Griqualand West Board of. Executors Trust & Agency Company.
HCT - High Commission Territory.
IAA - Indian Association of America.
ICAA - International Committee on African Affairs.
ICYMCA - International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations.
IDAMF(IAMF) - Inter-Denominational African Ministers' Federation.
IMC - International Missionary Council.
IPAMA - Inter-Provincial African Ministers' Association.
IOTT - Independent Order of Trus Templars.
JAFA - Johannesburg African Football Association.
JBFA - Johannesburg Bantu Football Association.
JCEAW - Joint Council of European and African Women.
JCN-ETU - Joint Council of Non-European Trade unions.
JDSSU - Johannesburg & District Sunday School Union.
JHSSW - Jan Hofmeyr School of Social Work.
JIMCI - Johannesburg Indian Young Men's Cultural Institute.
JISA - Johannesburg Indian Sports Association.
JJCEA - Johannesburg Joint Council of Europeans and Africans.
JJCEN - Johannesburg Joint Council of Europeans and Natives.
JSAP - Junior South African Party.
JSSAC - Johannesburg Social Security Action Committee.
LABC - Location Advisory Boards Congress.
LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
MC - Methodist Church.
MCCL - Medical Correspondence College, London.
MCSA - Methodist Church of South Africa.
MEC - Methodist Episcopal Church.
MHSW - Mental Hygiene Society of the Witwatersrand.
MLMM - Methodist Laymen's Missionary Movement.
MMF - Milbank Memorial Fund.
MMIC - Methodist Mission Institution, Clarkebury.
MEL - Methodist Men's League.
MMS - Methodist Missionary Society.
MNA - Minister of Native Affairs.
MOH - Medical Officer of Health.
MTOA - Motor Transport Owners' Association.
NAA - Native Administration Act, 1927.
NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People.
NAC - Native Affairs Commission.
NALGO - National Association of Land Government Officers.
NAWO - National Anti-Waste Organization.
NBRC - National Bank of the Republic of Chicago.
NC - Native Commissioner.
NCAW - Notional Council of African Women.
NCCL - National Council for Civil Liberties.
NCCW - National Council for Child Welfare.
NCF - Nurses' Christian Fellowship.
NCYMCA - National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations.
NEFC (AES) - New Educational Fellowship Conference (African Education Section).
NEMTEU - Non-European Meat Trades Employees' Union.
NEPT - Non-European Progress Trust.
NEUM - Non-European Unity Movement.
NMC - Native Military Corps.
NOIB - Nederlandse Opleidings Instituut voor het Buitenland.
NPPC - Native Printing and Publishing Company.
NRC - Native Representative Council.
NTLB - Native Trust and Land Bill.
NUAA - Northwestern University Alumni Association.
OFSAHA - Orange Free State African Herbalists' Association.
OFSATA - Orange Free State African Teachers' Association.
OMWA - Orlando Mothers' Welfare Association.
PCN-ETU - Pretoria Council of Non-European Trade Unions.
PJCEN - Pretoria Joint Council of Europeans and Natives.
PLIC - Public Life Insurance Company.
PMCT - Primitive Methodist Churches of the Transvaal.
PWF - Public Welfare Foundation, Inc.
RABA - Reef Advisory Board Association.
RBHA - Rural Bank Health Association.
RCSSA - Ramsey County Sunday School Association.
RES - Royal Empire Society.
RHAWU - Railways and Harbours African Workers' Union.
RIE - Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.
SAAFA - South African African Football Association.
SABA - South African Association for Burial and Aid.
SACC - South African Cultural Club.
SACIR - South African Council on Induntria1 Relations.
SACWAYWCA - S.A. Council of Word Affiliated Young Women's Christian Associations.
SAFSU - Society of Friends of the Soviet Union.
SAGCC - South African Gifts and Comforts Committee.
SALA - South African Library Association.
SAMC - South African Medical Council.
SANCU - South African Native Co-operative Union.
SANCCW - South African National Council for Child Welfare.
SANTF - South African Native Teachers' Federation.
SAP - South African Police.
SAPA - South African Press Associations.
SAR - South African Railways.
SARH - South African Railways and Harbours.
SASSA - South African Social Security Association.
SCA - Students' Christian Association.
SMFA - Steward Missionary Foundation for Africa.
SSM - Society of the Sacred Mission.
SSASA - Social Services Association of South Africa.
SSVdeP - Society of St Vincent de Paul.
SWA - South West Africa.
SWD - South Western Districts.
TABC - Transvaal African Boys' Clubs.
TAC - Transvaal African Congress.
TASA - Transvaal African Students' Association.
TATA - Transvaal African Teachers' Association.
TATWU - Transvaal African Timber Workers' Union.
TBFA - Transvaal Bantu Football Association.
TBGU - Transvaal Bantu Golf Union.
TBLTU - Transvaal Bantu Lawn Tennis Union.
TCN-ETU - Transvaal Council of Non-European Trade Unions.
TCPA - The Chiefs and Peoples Association.
TED - Transvaal Education Department.
TIAMA - Transvaal Inter-Denominational African Ministers' Association.
TIC - Transvaal Indian Congress.
TI-DMA - Transvaal Inter-Denominational Ministers' Association.
TNC - Transvaal Native Congress.
TNII - Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
TSCNEB - Transvaal Society for the Care of Non-European Blinds.
TVA - Transkeian Voters' Association.
TWEA - Transvaal Workers' Educational Association.
UDF - Union Defence Force.
UEPI - University Examination Postal Institution.
USPHS - United States Public Health Service.
WAEWF - Welfare of Africans in Europe War Fund.
WASU - West African Students' Union.
WFDY - World Federation of Democratic Youth.
WIAC - Women's International Affairs Club.
WMC - Wesleyan Methodist Church.
WNT - Western Native Township.
WSCF - World Student Christian Federation.
WSE - World Service Exhibition.
WYWCA - World Young Women's Christian Association.
YCL - Young Communist League.
ZCA - Zoutpansberg Cultural Association.
ZYWCA(Tvl) - Zenzele Y.W.C.A. of the Transvaal.
Appraisal, destruction and scheduling
System of arrangement
The procedure followed in this calendar of the A.B. Xuma Papers has been to separate the correspondence from other material, and to list the former in simple date order, irrespective of subject or type of document, with the following exceptions:
1) Dr Xuma's medical papers, whether dated or not, have been grouped together under R. These include correspondence with his patients, which we considered should be kept out of the general calendar. 2) Printed pamphlets and leaflets have been placed under S. 3) Press cuttings though usually dated, have been placed together with T and U. 4) Documents of a purely personal nature, such as Christmas cards, membership cards, diaries, family photographs and private business letters considered to have little general historical interest, some of them belonging to the second Mrs Xuma, can be found under P and Q. Dr Xuma's Autobiography, of which only pp. 1-48 were found in the collection, is also placed with the personal material.
As for the correspondence under A to M, a simple six-digit numbering of these documents was decided on: The first pair of digits standing for the last two figures of the calendar year; the second pair for the calendar month; and the third pair for the day of the month. If more than one document carries the same date, they are distinguished by additional letters. Thus the reference 430817a means that the document referred to is one of those dated 17 August 1943.
T.R.H. Davenport and Sheila Hindson, May 1972
Conditions of access and use area
Conditions governing access
Conditions governing reproduction
Permission to publish must be obtained from the family of A.B. Xuma.
Language of material
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Language and script notes
Physical characteristics and technical requirements
This collection has very fragile and damaged material, and most of the time the poor quality of documents could not be enhanced through digitisation.
The full inventory including calendar of the correspondence can be downloaded, see right-hand bar.
Uploaded finding aid
Allied materials area
Existence and location of originals
Existence and location of copies
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The digitisation of this collection has been made possible with generous funding from the Atlantic Philanthropies Foundation.